If you're interested in becoming a bone marrow donor, please go to BeTheMatch.org to join the national bone marrow registry. If you are between the ages of 18 and 44, it costs nothing to join.
- Reasons given for having abortions in the United States, WM Johntson, January 2016
- Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, Alan Guttmacher Institute, September 2005
Do bodily rights justify abortion?
- McFall v. Shimp, Court of Common Pleas of Alleghany County, Pennsylvania. Civil Division. No. GD 78-17711
- Anemia victim McFall dies of hemorrhage, The Michigan Daily, August 11, 1978.
- A Defense of Abortion, Judith Jarvis Thomson, Philosophy & Public Affairs, Autumn 1971
- Roe v. Wade, United States Supreme Court, No. 70-18.
- Coerced Donation of Body Tissues: Can We Live with McFall v. Shimp? Fordham E. Huffman, Ohio State Law Journal, 1979
The fetus is a human organism.
- Schoenwolf, Bleyl, Brauer, & Francis-West, Larsen’s Human Embryology, 5th Edition
- Scott Gilbert, Developmental Biology, 11th Edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2016
- Digynic triploid infant surviving for 46 days, Hasegawa et al, American Journal of Medical Genetics, December 1999
- Long-term survival in a 69,XXX triploid premature infant. Takabachi et al, American Journal of Medical Genetics, June 2008
- Miscarriage, U.S. National Library of Medicine, accessed October 20, 2018
- Child Mortality, Max Roser, Our World In Data, accessed November 14, 2018
- Meiosis: Where the Sex Starts - Crash Course Biology #13, Youtube, published April 23, 2012
Biology and Embryology textbooks and relevant quotes:
- Scott Gilbert, Developmental Biology, 11th Edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2016: “Fertilization accomplishes two separate ends: sex (the combining of genes derived from two parents) and reproduction (the generation of a new organism).”
- T.W. Sadler, Langman's Medical Embryology, 10th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006:"Development begins with fertilization, the process by which the male gamete, the sperm, and the female gamete, the oocyte, unite to give rise to a zygote."
- Erich Blechschmidt, Brian Freeman, The Ontogenetic Basis of Human Anatomy: The Biodynamic Approach to Development from Conception to Adulthood, North Atlantic Books, June 2004: "We talk of human development not because a jumble of cells, which is perhaps initially atypical, gradually turns more and more into a human, but rather because the human being develops from a uniquely human cell. There is no state in human development prior to which one could claim that a being exists with not-yet-human individuality. On the basis of anatomical studies, we know today that no developmental phase exists that constitutes a transition from the not-yet-human to the human." & "In short, a fertilized egg (conceptus) is already a human being."
- Keith L. Moore, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 7th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2003: "Human development begins at fertilization, the process during which a male gamete or sperm (spermatozoon development) unites with a female gamete or oocyte (ovum) to form a single cell called a zygote. This highly specialized, totipotent cell marked the beginning of each of us as a unique individual." And "A zygote is the beginning of a new human being (i.e., an embryo)."
- Scott Gilbert, Developmental Biology, 6th Edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2001:“When we consider a dog, for instance, we usually picture an adult. But the dog is a “dog” from the moment of fertilization of a dog egg by a dog sperm. It remains a dog even as a senescent dying hound. Therefore, the dog is actually the entire life cycle of the animal, from fertilization through death.”
- Ronan R. O'Rahilly and Fabiola Müller, Human Embryology & Teratology, 3rd Edition, New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001: "Although life is a continuous process, fertilization is a critical landmark because, under ordinary circumstances, a new genetically distinct human organism is formed when the chromosomes of the male and female pronuclei blend in the oocyte."
- Ida G. Dox, B. John Melloni, Gilbert Eisner, The HarperCollins Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 2001: “An Embryo is an organism in the earliest stages of development.”
- Human Embryology, William J Larsen, 3rd Edition, 2001: “In this text, we begin our description of the developing human with the formation and differentiation of the male and female sex cells or gametes, which will unite at fertilization to initiate the embryonic development of a new individual.”
- William J. Larsen, Essentials of Human Embryology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998: "Human embryos begin development following the fusion of definitive male and female gametes during fertilization... This moment of zygote formation may be taken as the beginning or zero time point of embryonic development."
- Bruce M. Carlson, Patten's Foundations of Embryology. 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996: "Almost all higher animals start their lives from a single cell, the fertilized ovum (zygote)... The time of fertilization represents the starting point in the life history, or ontogeny, of the individual."
- Keith L. Moore and T.V.N. Persaud. Before We Are Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects. 4th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1993: "Zygote. This cell, formed by the union of an ovum and a sperm (Gr. zyg tos, yoked together), represents the beginning of a human being. The common expression 'fertilized ovum' refers to the zygote."
- Clark Edward Corliss, Patten's Human Embryology: Elements of Clinical Development. New York: McGraw Hill, 1976. "It is the penetration of the ovum by a spermatozoan and resultant mingling of the nuclear material each brings to the union that constitutes the culmination of the process of fertilization and marks the initiation of the life of a new individual."
- E.L. Potter and J.M. Craig, Pathology of the Fetus and the Infant, 3rd edition. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1975: "Every time a sperm cell and ovum unite a new being is created which is alive and will continue to live unless its death is brought about by some specific condition."
- J.P. Greenhill and E.A. Friedman, Biological Principles and Modern Practice of Obstetrics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1974: "The term conception refers to the union of the male and female pronuclear elements of procreation from which a new living being develops. It is synonymous with the terms fecundation, impregnation, and fertilization."
- Leslie Brainerd Arey, Developmental Anatomy, 7th Edition. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974: “The formation, maturation and meeting of a male and female sex cell are all preliminary to their actual union into a combined cell, or zygote, which definitely marks the beginning of a new individual. The penetration of the ovum by the spermatozoon, and the coming together and pooling of their respective nuclei, constitutes the process of fertilization.”
Which human organisms are morally relevant?
- Development of large-scale functional networks from birth to adulthood: A guide to the neuroimaging literature. Grayson & Fair, Neuroimage, October 2017
- Developmental aspects of consciousness: how much theory of mind do you need to be consciously aware? Perner & Dienes, Conscious and Cognition, March 2003
- Scott Gilbert, Developmental Biology, 11th Edition. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 2016
- Why Humans Give Birth to Helpless Babies, Kate Wong, Scientific American, August 28, 2012
Abortion and infanticide.
- Campbell County mother can't be charged in baby's death, Angela Hatcher, NBC12, December 17, 2009
- Infanticide conviction nets Alberta woman suspended sentence, Janice Johnston, CBC News, September 9, 2011
- Doctor accused of severing babies' spines with scissors in 'house of horrors,' Mark Morgenstein, CNN, March 4, 2013
- Gosnell Grand Jury Report, Court of the Common Pleas, First Judicial District of Pennsylvania, Criminal Trial Division, MISC. NO. 0009901-2008
- Philadelphia Abortion Doctor Guilty of Murder in Late-Term Procedures, Jon Hurdle & Trip Gabriel, The New York Times, May 13, 2013
- This is not a case about abortion, PZ Myers, ScienceBlogs, January 20, 2011
- Text of SB1095 (Illinois born alive infant protection act)
- Obama and 'Infanticide,' Jess Henig, FactCheck.org, August 25, 2008
- Should the Baby Live? Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer
- After-birth abortion: why should the baby live? Giubilini & Minerva, Journal of Medical Ethics, February 23, 2012
Further Recommended Reading
- Giving Birth to a "Rapist's Child": A Discussion and Analysis of the Limited Legal Protections Afforded to Women Who Become Mothers Through Rape, Shauna R. Prewitt, Georgetown Law Review, 2009
- How the Pro-Choice Movement Excludes People With Disabilities, Lenzy Sheible, Rewire News, October 17, 2014
- Stop Saying That Making Abortion Illegal Won't Stop People From Having Them, Rewire News, October 4, 2018
- Master post: 21+ week abortions usually aren't medically necessary, 2/26/2019
- Pro-choice states have just as many unintended pregnancies and far more abortions, 9/11/2018
- Pro-choice embryologist contradicts his own biology textbook. 8/31/2018
- Link collection: Evidence that pro-life laws mean fewer unplanned pregnancies. 7/31/2018
- More evidence that abortion restrictions decrease abortion rates. 7/25/2018
- Pro-life laws prevent abortion primarily by preventing unplanned pregnancy. 7/20/2018
- International 'unsafe abortion' studies are highly flawed. 1/10/2018
- Human Beings Begin as Zygotes: Refutations to 8 Common Pro-Choice Arguments. 8/11/2017
- Pro-life laws stop abortions. Here's the evidence. 8/9/2017
- More evidence that most late-term abortions are elective. 12/16/2016
- No, most late-term abortions are not medically necessary. 10/20/2016
- Dear Bill Nye: Where's the science, guy? 9/26/2015
- Misconceptions about the rape exception, 7/29/2014